AEGLE MARMELOS ( Sharma K, 2017), the common name is Bael that belongs to the family of Rutaceae. Here are Health benefits and nutrition profile of Bael fruit. It also show some benefits when consumed during pregnancy along with side effects of taking it during pregnancy.It has various medical properties that are listed in “Charaka Samhita” ( K.K. Mishra, 1999). Bael has been one of the most important medical plant. More than 100 phytochemical compounds are present in various parts of the plant, namely phenol, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, tannin etc.The fruit has many uses like helps in the preparation of candy, squash, toffee, slab, nectar etc.
AEGLE MARMELOS CORREA is the scientific name of bael fruit ( Orwa C, 2009), is known by different name in different language.
|ENGLISH||BAEL FRUIT, INDIAN QUINCE, STONE APPLE, GOLDEN APPLE, ELEPHANT APPLE, BENGAL QUINCE|
|HINDI||BAEL PUTRI, BELA, SIRPHAL, KOORALAM, BAELPHATTRA|
|FRENCH||ORANGER DU MALABAR, BEL INDIEN|
|CAMBEDIA||PHNEOU OR PNOI|
SOURECE: Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga, 2011, Phytochemistry and medicinal uses of the bael fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa):A concise review, food research international 44 (1768-1775)
WHAT ARE THE HEALTH BENEFITS AND NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF AEGLE MARMELOS?
A. Maremelos has been found by several health benefits in various studies are as under ( Rastog and Mehrotra, 1990, Orwa et al, 2009, Laphookhieo, 2011, Baliga M.S Baliga, et al 2011, Ariharan V.N et al, 2013, Manadhar B, 2018, Nair A, 2018).
1. Anti-diabetic/ Anti-obesity activity-
Bael fruit is the best fruit for diabetic patient. It has been proven in various studies done rats. As a result, the fruit has anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. it can be consume for the treatment of diabetes.And, it is the complete cure for diabetes millutes, a diseases as old as maintained and characterized by hyperglycemia due to decreased secretion of insulin or action of insulin or both is lacking.
2. Anti-oxidant activity-
The fruit also act like an antioxidant due the presence of chemical like flavones, isoflavones, flavonoids, anthocyanin, catechins, isocatechins etc. The enzymatic antioxidants is increase in ripe bael fruit as compared to the unripe fruit. In the same vein, The total percentage of free radical inhibition was also high in unripe fruit. As a result, it act the excellent remedy for diarrhea.
3. Boost immunity-
The fruit is highly rich in Vitamin C. So, it helps to fight against infection and diseases. Hence, boost the immunity of an individual.
4. Anti-microbial activity-
Leaf extract (methanol and aqueous) of A. Marmelos for their activity against multi-drug resistant. However, Methanol extract shows the strong anti-microbial property.
Chloroform extract from the roots of plant has been found to show the strongest antibacterial activity against Vibro Cholera followed by Esherichia coli.
Marmelide has shown the highest antiviral potency more then the standard antiviral drug ribovirin.
Essential oil made up from A. Marmelos act in spore germination assay using 8 fungal. Moreover, 100% inhibition of spore germination of all fungi at 0.05%
5. Act against cognitive and neurological disorder-
Helps in the treatment of Alzheimer’s. Ethyl acetate fraction of leaf extract decrease the brain lipid per-oxidation. Consequently, the fruit can prevent the disorders related to some brain problems.
6. Cardio-protective activity-
Cardiovascular diseases leads to significant mortality worldwide.So, the cell-derived microparticial and hypercholestrolemia are the risk factors of many such diseases, for example- Atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and hypertension.
The plant extracts or the pure compound are effective at showing down the progression of such diseases by lowering the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level or the bad cholesterol.
7. Anti-pyretic/Anti-inflammatory activity-
Clear analgesic activity was resulted in carragoenan induced paw Edema and cotton pellet granuloma along with decreasing in hyperpyrexia.
Hence, It shows anti-inflammatory property.
8. Anti-Cancer activity-
The extracts was found to inhibit proliferation of tumor cell lines. As a result, it helps to prevent cancer. Moreover, It is due to present of photo-chemicals profile which shows pharmacological activities.
9. Anti-Ulcer activity-
A. Marmelos is used widely in Ayurveda to treat ulcers and associated diseases. Because it has the property that is really helpful to the treatment of ulcer. The fiber content helps in the purification of blood.
10. Provide instant energy-
Bael fruit is highly rich in carbohydrates, water, fiber, protein and other minerals. Consequently, it provide instant energy to the body. In addition, it gives the feeling of freshness.
11. Use as medicine in Ayurveda:
Bael leaf has a wide use in the Ayurveda system.
On the hand, it is used to treat diseases. For example- Fever, Abdominal pain, Urinary troubles, palpitation of heart, seminal weakness etc.
Further, the Bael fruit has an excellent remedy for diarrhea as it has the high fiber and water content.
12. Cure conjunctivitis, deafness:
Again the extract from leaves has the beneficial effect on the treatment of eye- related diseases. For example- conjunctivitis, night-blindness etc. Additionally, also treats the problem of deafness and leucorrhoea.
Pitha is also a disease that can be cure by the bael fruit.
In short, A. Marmelos has so many benefits not only as medicinal treatment of disease or health benefits but also in the Indian tradition for offering leaves to Lord Shiva in worshiping .
Nutrition profile of A. Marmelos Correa:
Nutritional Values of the fruit of A.Marmelos Correa (% per 100g wet pulp without seeds) (Parichha, 2004)
|Vitamin A (mg/100g)||0.055|
|Vitamin B2 (mg/100g)||1.2|
|Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid (mg/100g)||8.00|
However, The fruit has the deficiency of nitrogen and zinc.
And, it can be corrected by soil application or foliar spray.
Hence, the health benefits and nutritional profile are explained above.
Is the Bael Fruit safe to eat during Pregnancy?
After looking at the health benefits of Bael. Now is it safe and good to eat it while pregnancy. (Nair A,2018)
Before judging must seek medical advice to confirm if you can eat or not.
1. Balance the fluid content:
Bael Fruit contain potassium which is very essential for the balance of body fluid.
During pregnancy, it is important to keep the body of mother hydrated and the level of electrolyte under control.
Because the blood vessels expands during this time, therefore electrolytes become very much important for the body.
Potassium also good for sending of nerve impulses.
It can additionally prevent cramps in the body.
2. Aid Digestion
The wood apple has high fiber profile which can help to aid digestion.
As the fetus grows in size, it gradually begins to exert pressure on the digestive system.
So, when the fruit is eaten in moderation, it can help to treat problems of digestion.
3. Fight Constipation:
Similarly, the most common digestion related problem a pregnant woman face is the problem of constipation.
Therefore, high fiber content makes it easy to digest food properly and gives relief from constipation.
4. Fight Infections:
No doubtfully, Fruit has been found to have an immune boosting property due to the presence of Vitamin C.
Extract from the fruits, leafs or barks are said to have a strong anti-microbial and anti-fungal property.
This helps to fight against infections in the body.
Eating extracts from the fruit in moderation can help fight several infections.
5. Other effects:
The fruit has many phytochemicals like flavanoids and courmarins which can reduce blood pressure level and keep it in under control.
It helps to manage Blood cholesterol level during pregnancy.
Side Effects of having A. marmelos during pregnancy:
With the health benefits and nutritional profile of bael, there are also some side effects of consuming it. As a result, it is really very important to be carefully about it because the period of pregnancy is very crucial phase of a pregnant woman life. ( Nair A, 2018)
- The fruit contains tannin, so consuming it for long period of time can leads to miscarriage.
- excess intake of bael fruit can also leads to the problem related to digestive system. For example- gas, bloating and gastrointestinal discomfort.
- It can as well as be poisonous, as leaves are said to cause abortions and sterility in women.
- A lot of debate as been taken over the topic that whether it is safe to eat bael during this crucial time.Some studies says that it can be risky to consume it.
As a result, it will be safer to consult a doctor before taking it during pregnancy.
Effects and Uses of Ripe, Half-ripe and Unripe A. Marmelos:
- The ripe fruit act as the aromatic and as a laxative.
- It is useful in cooking because can be used to make sherbets, murabbabs etc, which provide a coolness to the body.
- It has high enzymatic antioxidants than unripe fruit.
Half or Semi-ripe:
- Half ripe fruit act as the astringents, digestive and anti-diarrhea.
- Also used to make marmalade or Jams.
- Unripe fruit is bitter in taste, acrid, sour and astringent.
- Aids digestion and stomach irritations.
- Free radical inhibition was found to be high than ripe fruit.
Hence, Ripe, Semi-ripe as well as Unripe Bael fruit have different nutritional profile along with the health benefits.
Floral Description or Botanical Description:
The structure of the A. Marmelos has been described in the study which are as follows (Orwa et al, 2009, M.S Baliga et al, 2011) :
- The Plant or tree is the slow growing medium sized tree, upto 12-15 m tall.
- It has short trunk.
- The tree as thick, soft and flaking bark.
- A clear gummy sap, resembling gum Arabic.
- The gum is exuded from the wounded branches. As a result, it hangs down in the long strands.
- Gum is commonly used as a glue or an adhesive by jewelers.
- The wood of this tree is strongly aromatic when cut.
- The wood is grey-white, hard but not durable.
- Leaves of the tree is borne singly.
- About 2′ to 3′ and are made up of 3 to 5 oval pointed shallowly toothed leaflets.
- Mature leaves emits disagreeableness odor when bruised.
- On the other hand, new foliage looks glossy and pinkish-maroon.
- Leaf extract has been found to be used in the treatment of various diseases. For example- cancer, diarrhea etc.
- Fragrant flowers, in clusters of 4 to 7 along the young branchlets.
- It have 4 re-curved, fleshy petals, green outside, yellowish inside, and 50 or more greenish-yellow stamens.
- The fruit is oval, oblong, pyriform, or round in shape.
- It is about 5-20 cm in diameter,
- It has woody shell.
- The color of fruit is gray-green until the fruit is fully ripe.
- It turns yellowish when fully ripe.
- It is dotted with aromatic, minute oil glands.
- Inside, there is a dark-orange walls. And, filled with aromatic, pale-orange, pasty, sweet, resinous, more or less astringent, pulp.
- To sum up, the fruit has dietary agents and the pulp is yellow or orange further more it is very fragrant.
- The has pleasantly flavored and sweet to taste.
Harvesting and Yield:
- This particular fruit takes about 11 months to ripen.
- This harvested when the fruit changes it color to yellowish green
- A full grown tree produces from 400-1000 fruits depending upon the cultivar.(Sharma W, 2011)
- Any type of soil is suitable for the growth of the tree.For example- sandy, clay, water logge etc.
- Unirrigated, acidic or alkaline in pH range of 5-10.
- As the fruit is low in nitrogen and zinc content.
- Therefore, it can be corrected by soil foliar sprays.(Sharma W, 2011)
there are many uses of it ( Orwa et al, 2009,Baliga M.S et al, 2011) are as under:
- Fruit pulp has detergent action. Therefore, it can be used for washing clothes.
- Shells of hard fruits has been fashioned into pills and stuff boxes.
- Sometimes, decorated with gold and silver.
- A colognes is obtained by distillation from flowers.
- It is often used for important religious rituals and is eaten and cherish by many.
- Leaves, Barks, Roots, Fruits and seeds are used extensively in Indian traditional system of medicine.
- It has a broad range of therapeutic effects that includes free radical scavenging, anti-oxidation, inhibition of lipids, per oxidation etc.
- Tree is associated with Lord Shiva.
- Trifoliate Leaf symbolizes the function of creation, preservation and destruction.
- As well as, the three eyes of Shiva.
- Offering is essential while worshiping.
- In short, this particular fruit and tree has a wide range of benefits and uses.
- Moreover, Fruits seems to be relatively free from pests and diseases except for the fungi causing deterioration in storage.
Tips consume the Bael fruit:
- The fruit can be consumed by scoping the pulp and eating the pulp by de-seeding.
- Scope the pulp, de-seeded it and blend with milk, sugar and cardamon. And, consume it cool as a refreshing drink.
- Furthermore, it can used to make Bael sherbet.
- Jams are made up of semi-ripe fruit.
- Moreover, it can also be taken as Marmalade, Murabba or syrups.
- In addition, fruit pulp is used to prepare puddings and juices.
- In the same way, Positively, young leaves are used as vegetables.
These food maintain the nutritional profile of the fruit on the other hand also do not lead decrease to the health benefits by bael.
Do you want to purchase bael fruit.?
- Rind yields an essential oil- marmelle oils.
- Dry pulp, moistened with cold water, yields a red liquid containing mucilage and (probably) pectin.
- Fruit, ripe or unripe, moistened with a ferric chloride solution, gives a tannic reaction, strongest in the parts of the pulp next to the rind.
- Plants contains a bitter and a balsamic principle resembling Balsam of Peru.
- Also,Roots, leaves and bark yield reducing sugars.
In conclusion, Bael are one of the fruit with various health benefits and rich nutritional profile.
In fact, it has the high profile nutritive value and health benefits besides this the tree leaves not only used in worshiping but also the young leaves are used as vegetable.